GVPT 409E SYLLABUS — Spring 2002
SEMINAR IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND WORLD POLITICS:
ISSUES IN GENERAL DISARMAMENT
DEPARTMENT OF GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS
UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND
office: 0202 Tawes, 301-405-3537
home phone: 703-243-6097 (please do not call after 9PM)
email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
class sessions:: 3:00PM-4:15PM Monday/Wednesday, Tawes Hall room 0131
office hours:: 1:00-2:30PM Monday, 11:00AM-noon Wednesday, and by appointment. Please feel free to call or email me if these times are not convenient for you.
Dan Caldwell, World Politics and You, Prentice Hall, 2000. Available at the university bookstore and at bookstores on the web.
Michael Klare and Yogesh Chandrani, eds., World Security: Challenges for a New Century, Third edition, St. Martin’s Press, 1998. Available at the university bookstore and at bookstores on the web.
Preventing Deadly Conflict, Final Report of the Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, 1997. Please note that this is also not on the bookstore list because we have several copies for people to share. (The text of the report is at: http://www.ccpdc.org/pubs/rept97/finfr.htm. However, the web version of the report lacks many of the tables found in the print version.)
Randall Forsberg and Elise Boulding, Abolishing War, Boston Research Center for the 21st Century, 1998. This will be provided for your use later in the term.
Citations for readings from websites are noted in the text; if you have any difficulty accessing a reading, please notify me immediately. All links were live as of 17 January 2002. Readings marked as “reserve” will be available on reserve in the program’s offices. There will be a few additional readings during the semester, as events warrant -- they will be limited in number and in length.
You are required to read The Washington Post every day in print or on line as part of your assigned readings. Keeping up with the daily paper is important preparation for both class sessions and the exams because of our focus on current conflicts and security challenges.
This course has four main parts. The first part is an introduction to many of the issues dealt with in the class, including key concepts in defense and arms control, and an introduction to cross-cutting dimensions of security and disarmament issues. This section is intended to give everyone a common substantive base.
The second section of the course considers several historical and current arms control and disarmament issues. The historical material provides the context for evaluation of current proposals and assessment of their prospects for success.
The third section of the course examines five dimensions of general disarmament: military, political, economic, environmental, and social. Some of these themes provide opportunities for the pursuit of general disarmament, others will serve primarily as barriers to that effort, and still others will represent both opportunities and barriers depending upon other circumstances and conditions.
The last part of the course looks to the future. What are the alternatives to the current security situation? Do these alternatives require different institutional structures, different leaders?
The overall objective of this course is to help you develop a sense of the potential for general disarmament and the obstacles to achieving that goal. Students will be active participants in this process as discussants and as discussion leaders. You will have the opportunity to develop a solid overview of the issue, as well as in-depth knowledge of specific cases.
This course consists of a mix of lecture and discussion. Your primary responsibilities are:
Homework assignments and attending and participating in class sessions: 25 percent of the grade. You are expected to attend each class and do the reading for each class in advance. “Readings” are required; “background” or “optional” items are not.
Take home mid-term exam: 25 percent of the grade. This will cover material from the lectures, assigned readings, and class discussions. The mid-term exam will be handed out on 13 March, and will be due on 20 March at the beginning of class. I may be out of the country from 11-14 March, in which case the guest lecturer will distribute the exams and I will answer questions via email.
Team presentations and write-up: 25 percent of the grade. Each student will be part of a team that will give oral presentations on selected security and disarmament issues, based on required and additional readings. Students will write up the results of the exercise and responses to additional questions; you’ll receive the specific assignment later in the term. Your writeups will be due one week after your presentations.
Final exam: 25 percent of the grade. As with the mid-term exam, the final exam will cover material from the lectures, assigned readings, and class discussions. The final exam will be on 21 May.
• If you have a documented physical or learning disability, I will be glad to make appropriate accommodations. Please contact me by 8 February so that we can discuss these arrangements.
• If you anticipate any conflicts between this schedule and your religious obligations, please inform me by 8 February so that we can make alternate arrangements.
Please make certain you understand the university’s policy on academic honesty. The Code of Academic Integrity is at: http://www.inform.umd.edu/CampusInfo/Departments/JPO/. This site includes definitions of academic dishonesty, such as cheating and plagiarism, and specifies consequences of this behavior.
In addition, the university has recently adopted an honor pledge: You should handwrite this statement on the front of your midterm and final exams, as well as on your writeup of your portion of your group’s presentation.
“I pledge on my honor that I have not given or received any unauthorized assistance on this assignment/examination."
For additional information on the student honor pledge, please see:
Please note that we may have occasional guest speakers. As a result, we may need to alter this schedule somewhat.
PART I: INTRODUCTIONS
This introductory section will present key concepts of disarmament, arms control, and international security to give the class a common base of understanding.
Introduction, course structure, and content
Reading: Arundhati Roy, “The End of Imagination,” The Nation, September 28, 1998, found at: http://past.thenation.com/issue/980928/0928AROY.HTM
Optional: If you have not taken GVPT 200, you may want to read Caldwell, chapter 1, “World Politics and You: An Introduction,” for background.
Setting the context: What is the status quo? What are the challenges to the status quo?
Reading: Arundhati Roy, “The algebra of infinite justice,” The Guardian, 29 September 2001, found at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/saturday_review/story/0,3605,559756,00.html
Seyom Brown, “World Interests and the Changing Dimensions of Security,” in Klare, chapter 1.
Michael Klare, “The Era of Multiplying Schisms: World Security in the Twenty-First Century,” in Klare, chapter 4.
Statement by Director of Central Intelligence George J. Tenet before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence on, “Worldwide Threat 2001: National Security in a Changing World,” 7 February 2001, found at:
Caldwell, chapter 4, “Actors, Power, and Interdependence in World Politics.”
Optional: James N. Rosenau, “The Dynamism of a Turbulent World,” in Klare, chapter 2.
Understanding security terms and concepts
Reading: CIA, “Unclassified Report to Congress on the Acquisition of Technology Relating to Weapons of Mass Destruction and Advanced Conventional Munitions, 1 July Through 31 December 2000,” September 2001, found at:
Theresa Hitchens, Nuclear Weapons: "Expensive Relics of Dead Conflicts," Key Issues for the Nuclear Posture Review, Coalition to Reduce Nuclear Dangers Issue Brief, Volume 5, Number 2, January 19, 2001, found at:
“Multilateral Approaches to WMD Threats After September 11,” Prepared remarks by Jayantha Dhanapala, Under‑Secretary‑General for Disarmament Affairs, United Nations, delivered to the annual meeting of the Arms Control Association, January 22, 2002, found at: http://www.armscontrol.org/aca/dhanapala.asp
Caldwell, chapter 8, “War, Peace, and International Security.”
Background: For a useful map of more than 30 contemporary conflicts, with links to substantive information about each, see the War, Peace and Security Guide from the Information Resource Centre of the Canadian Forces College, posted at:
Introduction to cross-cutting issues in security and disarmament
Readings: Kevin Clements, “Toward a Sociology of Security,” Conflict Research Consortium Working paper 90-4, July 1990, found at:
J. Ann Tickner, “Introducing Feminist Perspectives into Peace and World Security Courses,” Women’s Studies Quarterly, v. 23, No. 3/4, Fall 1995. (reserve)
Mahbub ul-Haq, “Human Rights, Security, and Governance,” Worlds Apart: Human Security and Global Governance,” (London: I.B. Tauris, 1999), found at:
Preventing Deadly Conflict, Final Report of the Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, 1997, executive summary.
Caldwell, chapter 12, “Ethics, Human Rights, and Democratization.”
PART II: ARMS CONTROL AND DISARMAMENT PERSPECTIVES
In this section, we will review past attempts at general disarmament and assess the reasons for their failure. We will also learn about the arms control negotiations that have been interwoven with attempts to produce general disarmament.
13, 18 February
Military dimensions of security and disarmament
We’ll examine a wide range of issues in this section, including: connections from light weapons through nuclear weapons, the state of proliferation today, the extent of regional and sub-regional conflict, and terrorism.
Readings: “The Risks of Nuclear Deterrence: From Superpowers to Rogue Leaders,” General Lee Butler, National Press Club, February 2, 1998, found at:
Global Action to Prevent War, Revision 17, October 2001, found at:
Program on General Disarmament Working Paper #1, “An Introduction to General Disarmament,” January 2000 version, available at:
Preventing Deadly Conflict, Final Report of the Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, 1997, chapter 4.
Stephen M. Younger, Nuclear Weapons in the Twenty‑First Century,” Los Alamos National Laboratory, LAUR‑00‑2850, June 27, 2000, found at:
Caldwell, chapter 9, “Arms Control and Disarmament.”
20, 25 February
The 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s
Key events included the presentation of the Baruch Plan and various counterproposals.
Readings: The Baruch Plan, presented to the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission, June 14, 1946; found at:
President Dwight D. Eisenhower, “The Chance for Peace,” American Society of Newspaper Editors, April 16, 1953, found at:
The Russell‑Einstein Manifesto, issued in London, 9 July 1955, found at:
“Freedom From War,” Department of State Publication 7277, September 1961, found at: http://dosfan.lib.uic.edu/ERC/arms/freedom_war.html
McCloy-Zorin Accords, 20 September, 1961, found at:
Optional: President John F. Kennedy, “Toward a Strategy of Peace,” found at: http://www.clw.org/pub/clw/coalition/jfk0610.htm
President Dwight D. Eisenhower, Farewell Address, January 17, 1961, found at: http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/4035/ikefw.htm
Please note that key treaty texts can be found on the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency’s website, which is now archived at: http://dosfan.lib.uic.edu/acda/treaties.htm. Before class, please make sure you have looked at each agreement listed for that class, and that you have a general understanding of what these agreements cover.
The archived ACDA site provides explanatory text for many treaties. If you have trouble accessing the ACDA site, these treaties can be found in several other places, including the Carnegie Endowment’s website, at: http://www.ceip.org/files/nonprolif/resources/treaties.asp. Multilateral treaties may also be found at the UN’s web site: http://domino.un.org/TreatyStatus.nsf
Readings: Full text of the Limited (Partial) Test Ban Treaty (1963), and the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (1974).
Conference on Facilitating the Entry into Force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, Vienna, “The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) at a Glance,” Booklet 1, found at: http://www.ctbto.org/reference/outreach/booklet1a.pdf
General John M Shalikashvili (USA, Retired), “Findings and Recommendations Concerning the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty,” Special Advisor to the President and Secretary of State, January 2001, found at:
Strategic arms control
Readings: Arms Control Association fact sheets
· “START I at a glance,” January 1999, found at:
· “START II and its Extension Protocol at a glance,” January 1999, found at: http://www.armscontrol.org/factsheets/start2.asp
· “The START/ABM Package at a glance” January 1999,
· “START III at a glance,” January 1999, found at:
“Stuck at First START: U.S. Forced to Maintain its Nuclear Arsenal while Russia's Declines,” Coalition to Reduce Nuclear Dangers, Issue Brief, Vol. 4, No. 6, updated June 6, 2000, found at: http://www.clw.org/coalition/briefv4n6‑060600.htm
“Nuclear Posture Review Report,” Unclassified foreword by Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, 9 January 2002, found at:
“Findings of the Nuclear Posture Review,” Slides for 9 January 2002 briefing, found at: http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Jan2002/020109‑D‑6570C‑001.pdf
Optional: Richard L. Garwin, “What We Did,” The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, November/December 1998, found at:
Lisbeth Gronlund and David Wright, “What They Didn’t Do,” The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, November/December 1998, found at:
Readings: Dorn Crawford, “Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE): A Review and Update of Key Treaty Elements,” US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, January 2001. (handout)
Michael T. Klare and Lora Lumpe, “Fanning the Flames of War: Conventional Arms Transfers in the 1990s,” in Klare, chapter 9.
Small arms, light weapons, and landmines
Take home mid-term exam will be handed out in class on 13 March.
Readings: Background information from the International Campaign to Ban Landmines. From the main page, click on resources (left side of screen), and then click on “What’s the problem?”, found at: www.icbl.org
Office of the President, “Landmines: White House Fact Sheet,” February 1999, found at: http://www.usinfo.state.gov/topical/pol/arms/zarchives/minefs.htm
International Action Network on Small Arms (IANSA) founding document, found at:
Tanya Metaksa, “The Coming UN Gun Grab,” FrontPageMagazine, 19 September, 2000, found at:
Tanya Metaksa, “Global Gun Grab,” FrontPageMagazine, 13 September 2000, found at: http://www.frontpagemag.com/archives/gun_rights/metaksa09‑13‑00.htm
Natalie Goldring, “A Glass Half Full: The UN Small Arms Conference,” Prepared for the Council on Foreign Relations Roundtable on the Geo-Economics of Military Preparedness, September 2001. (handout)
Non-proliferation: Nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons
Mid-term exam will be due at the beginning of class on 20 March.
Readings: Text of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (1968).
John A. Lauder, Special Assistant to the Director of Central Intelligence for Nonproliferation, Unclassified statement for the record on the worldwide WMD threat, for the Commission to Assess the Organization of the Federal Government to Combat the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction, found at:http://www.cia.gov/cia/public_affairs/speeches/archives/1999/lauder_speech_042999.html
“The Non-Proliferation Treaty: The Case for Indefinite Extension,” Vice President Gore, Secretary of State Christopher, US Department of State Dispatch, Volume 6 #17, April 24, 1995, found at:
Michael Barletta and Amy Sands, ed., “Nonproliferation Regimes At Risk,” Occasional Paper No. 3, Monterey Nonproliferation Strategy Group, Center for Nonproliferation Studies, Monterey Institute of International Studies, 1998, especially pages 1-21 and 39-46. (handout)
Zachary S. Davis, “Nuclear Proliferation and Nonproliferation Policy in the 1990s,” in Klare, chapter 8.
The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, Fact Sheets 1, 2, and 4. (Fact Sheet 3 is optional.) From the home page, click on the right-hand column’s reference to a series of eleven fact sheets. That will lead you to the PDF files for the individual fact sheets. Found at: http://www.opcw.nl/
Optional: Educational module at the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) site, found at: http://cbw.grmbl.com/
25-31 March Spring Vacation
PART III: CROSS-CUTTING DIMENSIONS OF SECURITY AND DISARMAMENT
Political dimensions of security and disarmament
Political dimensions include the roles of key institutions, such as the United Nations. There is also a post-Cold War dimension: Is the United States the sole remaining superpower? For good or ill? What are the potential benefits and costs of the seeming erosion of the state? How important a part of this dimension is terrorism?
Readings: Lawrence S. Finkelstein, “The United Nations and Organizations for the Control of Armaments,” International Organization, Volume 16, Issue 1, Winter 1962, pp. 1-19. Found on JSTOR, available through university-linked computers.
Yasushi Akashi, “The Role of the United Nations in Disarmament,” Disarmament, Volume 14, Number 2, 1991, pp. 33-44. (reserve)
Elise Boulding, “Roles for NGOs in reducing or preventing violence,” Transnational Associations, Volume 49, Number 6, 1997, pp. 317-327, found at:
Ashton Carter, John Deutch, and Philip Zelikow, “Catastrophic Terrorism,” Foreign Affairs, November/December 1998, pp. 80-94. (reserve)
Preventing Deadly Conflict — skim chapters 5 and 6.
Economic dimensions of security and disarmament
Discussion is likely to focus on domestic and international tradeoffs between economic and military factors, such as the benefits and costs of military production and export to producers and consumers.
Readings: Michael Renner, “The Global Divide: Socioeconomic Disparities and International Security,” in Klare, chapter 14.
Vincent Ferraro, Ana Cristina R. Santos, and Julie Ginocchio, “The Global Trading System and International Politics,” in Klare, chapter 15.
William Hartung, “Welfare for Weapons Dealers, 1999," World Policy Institute, found at: http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa‑350es.html
Caldwell, chapter 11, “International Political Economy.”
Role play, part 1
Environmental dimensions of security and disarmament
This segment will consider environmental conflict and cooperation, the environmental consequences of militarization, and the prospects for resource wars.
Readings: Janet Welsh Brown, “International Environmental Cooperation as a Contribution to World Security,” in Klare, chapter 16.
Thomas Homer-Dixon, “Environmental Scarcity and Intergroup Conflict,” in Klare, chapter 17.
Peter H. Gleick, “Environment and Security: The Clear Connections,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, April 1991, found at:
Daniel Deudney, “Environment and Security: Muddled Thinking,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, April 1991, found at:
Caldwell, chapter 13, “Population, the Environment, and Economic Development.”
15, 17 April
Role play parts 2 and 3
Social dimensions of security and disarmament
Social dimensions that we’re likely to discuss include demographic issues, ethnic disputes and separatist conflicts, refugees, and women’s issues.
Readings: Dennis Pirages, “Demographic Challenges to World Security,” in Klare, chapter 18.
Geneva Overholser, “Heritage of Violence,” The Washington Post, December 7, 1999. (reserve)
Carol Cohn, “Slick’ems, Glick’ems, Christmas Trees, and Cookie Cutters: Nuclear language and how we learned to pat the bomb,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, June 1987, pp. 17-24. (reserve)
Charlotte Bunch and Roxanna Carillo, “Global Violence Against Women: The Challenge to Human Rights and Development,” in Klare, chapter 12.
Optional: Canadian Forces College file on contemporary conflicts (website address above).
PART IV. PROSPECTS FOR THE FUTURE
This section will look toward the future. What are the prospects for general disarmament? Do viable proposals exist, or do they need to be (re)invented?
Introduction to future perspectives
Reading: Preventing Deadly Conflict, chapter 7.
National Intelligence Council, Central Intelligence Agency, “Global Trends 2015: A Dialogue About the Future With Nongovernment Experts,” NIC 2000‑02, December 2000, available at: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/globaltrends2015/index.html Read Overview (The Drivers and Trends, Key Uncertainties, Key Challenges) -- roughly the first 10 pages of the report.
29 Apr, 1 May
Future perspectives: Institutions and mechanisms
Will the UN suffice, or do we need something new? Do treaties work? Is there a new role for unilateralism, with or without reciprocity? What do we know about possible roles for new technologies and communications methods?
Readings: Robert C. Johansen, “Building World Security: The Need for Strengthened International Institutions,” in Klare, chapter 19.
Margaret P. Karns and Karen A. Mingst, “The Evolution of United Nations Peacekeeping and Peacemaking: Lessons from the Past and Challenges for the Future,” in Klare, chapter 11.
Peter Grier, “New Rules for the Nuclear Age,” Christian Science Monitor, October 19, 1999, found at: http://www.csmonitor.com/durable/1999/10/19/fp1s1‑csm.shtml
Walter Dorn, “The United Nations in the 21st Century,” text of a speech given at the Toda Institute in Tokyo, December 1996, found at:
Future perspectives: Options
We’ll discuss works in progress, hopeful signs, and signs of concern.
Readings: Ambassador Thomas Graham, Jr., “Prospects for Global Disarmament,” September 16, 1998, New Delhi. (handout, if not reposted on the web before May)
John P. Holdren, "Getting to Zero: Is Pursuing a Nuclear‑Weapon‑Free World Too Difficult? Too Dangerous? Too Distracting?" The Force of Reason: Eliminating Nuclear Weapons and Ending War, Maxwell Bruce and Tom Milne, eds. London: MacMillan, 1999, found at:
Caldwell, chapter 15, “World Politics, the Future, and You.”
Randall Forsberg and Elise Boulding, Abolishing War, Boston Research Center for the 21st Century, 1998. (handout)
13 May Summing up
21 May Final exam